Introduction to MongoDB collection.findOneAndReplace() Method

The findOneAndReplace() method in MongoDB is used to find the first document in a collection that matches a given condition and replaces it with a new document. This method can be used with a query condition to find the document and replace it with a new one that meets the condition.


The basic syntax of the findOneAndReplace() method is as follows:

db.collection.findOneAndReplace(filter, replacement, options)

Where the parameters are:

  • filter: A query condition that specifies which documents will be replaced. If this parameter is empty, it means that all documents meet the condition.
  • replacement: A new document used to replace the matching document.
  • options: Optional parameters that specify query options. Common options include projection (specifying which fields to return), sort (specifying the sorting method of the query results), and upsert (specifying whether to insert a new document if no documents meet the condition).

Use Cases

The findOneAndReplace() method is suitable for scenarios where the first document that meets a condition needs to be replaced. Common use cases include:

  • Updating some fields in a document.
  • Replacing an existing document with a new one.
  • Replacing the first document that meets certain criteria.


Example 1: Updating some fields in a document

The following example finds the first document in the products collection whose product_name field value is apple, and updates its price field to 2.0:

  { product_name: "apple" },
  { $set: { price: 2.0 } }

After executing the above code, if a document that meets the condition is found, its old value will be returned, and its price field will be updated to 2.0.

Example 2: Replacing an existing document with a new one

The following example inserts a new document, and if the _id field of the document already exists, it will be replaced:

  { _id: "1001" },
  { product_name: "banana", price: 3.0 },
  { upsert: true }

After executing the above code, if a document with _id 1001 is found, it will be replaced with a new document containing two fields: product_name and price. If the document is not found, a new document will be inserted.


In this article, we learned about the purpose and usage of the findOneAndReplace() method in MongoDB. This method can be used to find and replace documents that meet certain criteria, and if no matching documents are found, a new document can be inserted based on the value of the upsert parameter. When using this method, we need to specify the query condition, the replacement document, and whether to insert a new document. Through the two examples provided in this article, we can better understand the usage and effects of this method.