Introduction to MongoDB $split Operator

MongoDB is a commonly used NoSQL database that provides rich aggregation operators for convenient data processing. The $split operator is one of these operators, which is used to split strings and extract specific substrings or split a string into an array. This article will introduce the syntax, usage scenarios, examples, and conclusions of the $split operator.


The syntax of the $split operator is as follows:

{ $split: { input: <string expression>, delimiter: <string expression>, max: <int expression> } }
  • input: A string expression representing the string to be split.
  • delimiter: A string expression representing the delimiter used to split the string.
  • max: An optional parameter that specifies the maximum number of substrings to be returned.

Usage scenarios

In MongoDB, the $split operator can be used to handle data containing strings. For example, if there is a string field in a document that contains multiple substrings separated by commas, we can use the $split operator to split it into an array for further data processing.


We use the following data as an example:

{ name: 'Alice', hobbies: 'swimming,reading' }
{ name: 'Bob', hobbies: 'running,hiking,cooking' }
{ name: 'Charlie', hobbies: 'singing,dancing' }

Now, we want to split the hobbies field in each document into an array and calculate how many hobbies each person has. We can use the following aggregation pipeline:

  { $project: { name: 1, hobbies: { $split: ["$hobbies", ","] } } },
  { $project: { name: 1, numHobbies: { $size: "$hobbies" } } }

In the above aggregation pipeline, the first $project stage uses the $split operator to split the hobbies field into an array and assign it to the hobbies field. The second $project stage uses the $size operator to calculate the length of the hobbies array, which represents the number of hobbies for each person.

After running the above aggregation pipeline, we get the following result:

{ name: 'Alice', numHobbies: 2 }
{ name: 'Bob', numHobbies: 3 }
{ name: 'Charlie', numHobbies: 2 }


The $split operator is an aggregation operator used for string splitting in MongoDB. It can conveniently split a string into multiple substrings and store them as an array for further data processing. In actual usage scenarios, the $split operator can be flexibly used according to specific requirements for string processing.